Τρίτη, 29 Σεπτεμβρίου 2009

The 25th Annual Conference of the British & Irish Law, Education & and Technology Association

CALL FOR PAPERS AND CONTRIBUTIONS BILETA 2010

The 25th Annual Conference of the British & Irish Law, Education & and Technology
Association (BILETA)

Sunday, 28 – Tuesday 30 March 2010
Vienna, Austria

http://www.univie.ac.at/RI/BILETA2010

Organised by:
Vienna University Faculty of Law Centre for Legal Informatics
Jointly with OCG Austrian Computer Society WZRI Vienna Centre for Legal Informatics

CONFERENCE OUTLINE

The focus of the 2010 annual conference will be on
Globalisation, Internet and the Law
Cyberspace, globalisation, global civil society and governance remain in the focus of interest, in particular in times of an economic crisis. 2010 is not only the magic year for the European knowledge society (Lisbon target) but may see the birth of an International Organisation deriving its authority from the global civil society. “Electronic life” becomes a reality. Questions of data protection and intellectual property determine more and more our life.
This year’s annual conference focuses on the ways in which law and technology can contribute to a better legal system in the era of globalisation. Law Schools have to contribute to this ongoing evolution in order to maintain efficient rule of law in the knowledge society.


SUBMISSIONS
Proposals are welcome for abstracts and expressions of interest to convene a stream in any of the following areas:

E-learning
• E-learning and legal education
Technology in the law school
• Search technologies
• Document production
• E-discovery
• Knowledge systems and legal ontologies
• Virtual worlds / SNS

ICT law
• Intellectual property – including copyright, open source etc.
• Privacy and data-protection
• Intellectual property law
• Cybercrime – including criminological aspects
• E-commerce
• E-government
• E-justice
• E-democracy

Globalisation and governance
• Globalisation
• ICANN and Internet governance
Legal theory and education
• Legal theory and critical perspectives
• Legal semiotics

There will be a prize-winning competition for the best Postgraduate Student Paper presented at the conference.
Please upload abstracts of approx 500 words in MS Word or PDF via our conference programme MyReview or send an e-mail to Prof. DDr. Erich Schweighofer as soon as possible.
Early submissions and suggestions for streams (including convenors) are welcome.

Deadline for early submissions: 31 October 2009.
Deadline for late submissions: 15 January 2010.

Full papers accepted and presented at the conference will be put forward for peer-review or special editions of journals in the areas of law, technology and education.
The OCG Austrian Society of Computers and Law is considering to produce printed conference proceedings.
The accepted papers will be published with 15 December 2009 (early submissions) respectively 31 January 2010 (late submissions).

PROGRAM COMMITTEE
Programme Committee
General Chair
Dr. Burkhard SCHAFER, University of Edinburgh
Prof. Dr. AbdulHusein PALIWALA, University of Warwick
Sefton Bloxham, University of Cumbria
Programme
Prof. DDr. Erich SCHWEIGHOFER (chair)
Mag. Anton GEIST (assistance)
Local Organisation
General Secretary Eugen MÜHLWENZL
Mag. Anton GEIST (assistance)
Prof. DDr. Erich SCHWEIGHOFER
Stream organisers (status; will be enlarged)
Prof. Dr. Jon BING, University of Oslo (NO): internet governance
Dr. Colette R. BRUNSCHWIG, University of Zurich (CH): visualisation
Prof. Dr. Fernando GALINDO, University of Zaragoza (ES): liaison - SubTech Conference, July 2010, Zaragoza
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang KLEINWÄCHTER, University of Aarhus (DK): internet governance
Head of Unit Dr. Waltraud KOTSCHY, Federal Chancellery (AT): data protection
Lecturer and Director Franz KUMMER, Weblaw, Bern (CH): search technologies
Head of Unit Mag. Peter KUSTOR, Federal Chancellery, Vienna (AT): e-government
Prof. Dr. Friedrich LACHMAYER, University of Innsbruck (AT): legal semiotics
Prof. Dr. Philip LEITH, Queen's University of Belfast (UK): intellectual property
Dr. Thomas MENZEL, Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture, Vienna (AT): e-learning
Prof. Dr. Dr. Gerald QUIRCHMAYR, University of Vienna (AT): knowledge systems
Lecturer Judith RAUHOFER, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (UK): data protection
Docent Mag. iur. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Michael SONNTAG, University of Linz (AT): e-learning
Prof. Dr. Andreas WIEBE, University of Göttingen (DE): intellectual property
Director Dr. Arthur WINTER, Federal Ministry for Finance (AT): e-government
Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian STADLER, University of Vienna (AT): e-learning
DEADLINES
Early submissions: 31 October 2009.
Late submissions: 15 January 2010.
Notification of acceptance: 15 November 2010 (early submissions); 31 January 2010 (late submissions)
CONFERENCE LANGUAGE
The conference language will be English.
CONFERENCE FEES
Full fee: EUR 250,- (GBP 223)
Reduced fee: EUR 200,- (GBP 178 )
(for authors, BILETA and OCG members, PC members)
Student fee: EUR 100,– (GBP 89)
One day only: EUR 150,- (GBP 134)

Legal protection of databases - ECJ case C-545/07 Apis-Hristovich EOOD v Lakorda AD

In the case C-545/07 Apis-Hristovich v Lakorda A/S, the Bulgarian courts referred to the ECJ various questions concerning the interpretation of the Database Directive (96/9). The owner of a legal legislation and case law database against a company (Lakorda) brought a claim, alleging that the defendant had extracted without its consent, much of the contents of its database. Lakorda claimed that its database was the fruit of a substantial, independent investment. Thus, the defence was one of independent creation. The Bulgarian court referred to the ECJ a number of crucial questions. The court had to decide on the issue of infringement.

The main issue dealt with by the ECJ was the interpretation of Art.7 of the directive (the infringement provisions).

The Court held the following:

1. The delimitation of the concepts of ‘permanent transfer’ and ‘temporary transfer’ in Article 7 of Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases is based on the criterion of the length of time during which materials extracted from a protected database are stored in a medium other than that database. The time at which there is an extraction, within the meaning of Article 7, from a protected database, accessible electronically, is when the materials which are the subject of the act of transfer are stored in a medium other than that database. The concept of extraction is independent of the objective pursued by the perpetrator of the act at issue, of any modifications he may make to the contents of the materials thus transferred, and of any differences in the structural organisation of the databases concerned.

The fact that the physical and technical characteristics present in the contents of a protected database made by a particular person also appear in the contents of a database made by another person may be interpreted as evidence of extraction within the meaning of Article 7 of Directive 96/9, unless that coincidence can be explained by factors other than a transfer between the two databases concerned. The fact that materials obtained by the maker of a database from sources not accessible to the public also appear in a database made by another person is not sufficient, in itself, to prove the existence of such extraction but can constitute circumstantial evidence thereof.

The nature of the computer program used to manage two electronic databases is not a factor in assessing the existence of extraction within the meaning of Article 7 of Directive 96/9.

2. Article 7 of Directive 96/9 must be interpreted as meaning that, where there is a body of materials composed of separate modules, the volume of the materials allegedly extracted and/or re-utilised from one of those modules must, in order to assess whether there has been extraction and/or re-utilisation of a substantial part, evaluated quantitatively, of the contents of a database within the meaning of that article, be compared with the total contents of that module, if the latter constitutes, in itself, a database which fulfils the conditions for protection by the sui generis right. Otherwise, and in so far as the body of materials constitutes a database protected by that right, the comparison must be made between the volume of the materials allegedly extracted and/or re-utilised from the various modules of that database and its total contents.

The fact that the materials allegedly extracted and/or re‑utilised from a database protected by the sui generis right were obtained by the maker of that database from sources not accessible to the public may, according to the amount of human, technical and/or financial resources deployed by the maker to collect the materials at issue from those sources, affect the classification of those materials as a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively, of the contents of the database concerned, within the meaning of Article 7 of Directive 96/9.

The fact that part of the materials contained in a database are official and accessible to the public does not relieve the national court of an obligation, in assessing whether there has been extraction and/or re‑utilisation of a substantial part of the contents of that database, to verify whether the materials allegedly extracted and/or re-utilised from that database constitute a substantial part, evaluated quantitatively, of its contents or, as the case may be, whether they constitute a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively, of the database inasmuch as they represent, in terms of the obtaining, verification and presentation thereof, a substantial human, technical or financial investment.

Legal Issues of Cloud Computing





In our days, many companies and corporations use the services of providers known as "Cloud Computing". In this way, they minimize expenses for hardware and software. however, this might result into certain legal problems concering mainly data protection, data security and more specific issues, such as tax law issues. Thus, users of cloud computing have to take into consideration this problematic before making any decision as to which services they will use.






According to Wikipedia, cloud computing is a paradigm of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. It essentially refers to specilised services, provided over the Internet and making available computer and network infrastructure, software and platform. For example, a company can maintain its own e-mail account system, but will be handled by a (cloud computing) provider, so that the company will not have to maintain its own server for this purpose.

This model of services offers evidently financial advantages to users, however, it also has some negative features. In particular, it noted that it may limit the freedom of users to choose applications. Certainly, users are free to choose whether they will make use of cloud computing or not. Further, it is pointed out by Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation, that cloud computing endangers liberties because users sacrifice their privacy and personal data to a third party. He states that cloud computing is "simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time.

Besides that, as it happens with many network services, even if data are securely stored in a cloud, many factors can temporarily disrupt access to the data, such as network outages, denial of service attacks against the service provider, and a major failure of the service provider infrastructure.

The most critical issue, however, is protection of personal data. Since personal data provided by users are being processed by cloud computing providers it has to be determined whether the requirements of applicable national data protection law are satisfied. This would not be the case if such data are being transfered to a third country, outside the EU, which does not provide an adequate level of protection. The Berliner Datenschutzbeauftragte Alexander Dix states in his annual report
that the transfer of data in countries such the USA, China or Japan would not be allowed ("Die datenschutzrechtlich für die Datenverarbeitung verantwortlichen, z. B. deutschen Kundinnen und Kunden, müssen sich davon überzeugen, dass die Datenverarbeitung nicht in einem Drittland ohne angemessenes Datenschutzniveau, z. B. in den USA, China oder Japan, stattfindet".)

Same problems are caused when data are being transfer with regard to tax law, since national tax law require that financial data are directly accessible.

See also: Fallstricke in der "Cloud"

Τετάρτη, 23 Σεπτεμβρίου 2009

PRIVACY 2010 Intelligent Information Privacy Management Symposium @ Stanford

Intelligent Information Privacy Management Symposium
March 23 - 25, 2010
CodeX: The Stanford Center of Computers and Law
Stanford University, USA
http://codex.stanford.edu



This symposium takes a transdisciplinary approach in its exploration of privacy management by drawing from the key areas of Law, Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Business. It will focus on the need to develop effective information privacy management frameworks, tools and techniques by addressing the underlying tension between transparency and disclosure in the privacy versus business strategy arenas. There is a significant and growing need to identify privacy requirements in application development and to use intelligent technology-enabled solutions to assist users to monitor and manage their personal information in a more transparent proactive fashion.

People derive significant benefits from sharing their personal details as they take advantage of relevant and useful services, particularly online. However, once collected, businesses often seek to exploit and monetize personal information, and sometimes it is disclosed.. Individuals possess a digital footprint that computer applications can discover and use for a wide range of purposes including behavioral targeting for advertising products and services.

The free flow of personal information that respects privacy can fuel and cultivate innovation. Optimizing the risks and rewards across the stakeholders may lead to new forms of innovation and the release of new economic value. The fundamental challenge is to establish legal regimes that enable innovation and facilitate information sharing across jurisdictions in global business. This symposium invites proposals from scholars with diverse backgrounds sharing a common aim: to contribute to development of transdisciplinary solutions to this fundamental challenge.

Specific areas of interest include:

* Privacy Related Law and Global Issues
* Privacy and Information Aggregation and Integration
* Privacy Codes of Practice
* Privacy Leadership and Governance
* Privacy Principles, Policies and Procedures
* Privacy Requirements
* Privacy and Best Business Practice
* Personal Information Management
* Personally Identifiable Information
* Intelligent Privacy Enhancing Technologies
* Privacy in Social Networks and Recommender Systems
* The Role of Trust and Risk Management in Privacy Protection

Important Dates
Submission: October 23, 2009 (extended)
Notification: November 13, 2009
Camera Ready Papers Due: December 10, 2009
Symposium: March 23 - 25, 2010 at Stanford University

Paper Submission and Publication

We are seeking three kinds of contributions: Issues papers, Position papers, and Technical papers.. All papers must be prepared using the AAAI paper guidelines: http://www.aaai.org/Publications/Templates/AuthorKit.zip

If you would like to submit in WORD please use the format in http://codex.stanford.edu/aaai.doc

Issues papers should clearly describe an important privacy related issue in 2-4 pages. Position papers and technical papers can be up to 6 pages in length.

Accepted papers will be published by AAAI Press, and authors will hold copyright. We are currently exploring possibilities for a Special Issue in a relevant journal.

All papers should be submitted electronically at the Privacy 2010 Submission Website http://www.easychair.org/conferences/?conf=privacy2010 .

Organizing Committee
Michael Genesereth
Stanford Center for Computers and Law
Computer Science, Stanford University
genesereth@stanford.edu

Roland Vogl
Stanford Center for Computers and Law
Stanford Law School, Stanford University
rvogl@law.stanford.edu

Mary-Anne Williams
Stanford Center for Computers and Law, Stanford University and
Innovation and Enterprise, University of Technology, Sydney
maryanne@cs.stanford.edu

Δευτέρα, 21 Σεπτεμβρίου 2009

2nd International Conference on ICT Solutions for Justice (Skopje, FYROM September 24th, 2009)



2nd International Conference on
ICT Solutions for Justice
(Skopje,
September 24th, 2009)


The Aim of the Conference

National e-justice systems are an important power for national economy and civil society. The globalization of the economy, social trends and other factors present new demands on judiciaries internationally, while at the same time technological and communicational advances offer opportunities to judicial policy makers to make justice more accessible, transparent and effective.

International terrorism, illegal immigration, rise in violent crimes, and the "globalisation" of organized crime are significant examples of the new challenges for criminal justice, while the increasing number of civil cases and criminal cases in the national judicial systems constitutes a major challenge for the judicial organisations. ICT deployment in European civil and criminal judicial systems is a key element to face these challenges and to improve significantly the administration of justice. The rapid development of technologies opens new opportunities, both during criminal investigations and trials and in civil litigations, Justice of Peace, labour, bankruptcy, thanks to the increased capabilities to exchange and use data, documents and information within and between judicial operators, police forces, public prosecutors offices and courts.

The ICT4JUSTICE conference aims to foster the experience exchange in establishing and enhancing the national e-justice systems, especially to share different experiences at portals, integration, applications, and examples of good practices, to present world’s latest trends in e-justice sector, and the future oriented services in justice sector. The conference will make possible to:

Share experience in increasing the efficiency of national judicial systems and corresponding trends in the world,

Explore the possibilities for integration of e-justice services and systems at the EU level,

Present the most advanced ICT-supported legal services to citizens, the public sector and business, and share experience in managing legal information (e-law),

Analyse issues such as privacy, information security, non repudiation, and long term archiving of legal documents.

Topics
The major topics of interest include but are not limited to:
Cross-border communication between parties to judicial proceedings and integration of registers and records at the EU level
Systems supporting lawyers, in legal reasoning, document drafting, negotiation
Systems supporting prosecutor offices, judicial police, and judicial cooperation
Video-conference in trials and investigations: legal and technological perspectives
Introduction of IT in courts and consequent changes in business processes
Improvement in communications between courts, citizens and organizations
Long term archiving of legal documents
E-submission and E-service
ICT for civil justice applications (litigation,Justice of the peace, bankruptcy, labour, family, statistics etc.)
Interoperability of judicial services in EU
Interoperability in Civil Justice
Copyright and the Internet
Disputes in registers/registars relationships and Domains and Top Level Domains (TLD)s attribution.
Cybercrime
E-commerce, Cryptography and Electronic Signatures

3rd International Conference on e-Democracy

"Next Generation Society: Technological and Legal Issues"

23 - 25 September 2009, Athens, Greece

Recent developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have paved a world of advanced communication, intelligent information processing, and ubiquitous access to information and services. The ability to work, communicate, interact, conduct business, and enjoy digital entertainment virtually anywhere, is rapidly becoming common place due to a multitude of small devices, ranging from mobile phones and PDAs to RFID tags and wearable computers. The increasing number of connected devices and the proliferation of networks, provide no indication of a slowdown in this tendency. On the negative side, misuse of this same technology entails serious risks in various aspects, such as privacy violations, advanced electronic crime, cyber terrorism, and even enlargement of the digital divide. In extreme cases it may even threaten basic principles and human rights.

The aforementioned issues raise an important question: Is our society ready to adopt the technological advances in ubiquitous networking, next generation Internet, and pervasive computing?To what extent will it manage to evolve promptly and efficiently to a Next Generation Society, adopting the forthcoming ICT challenges?

The e-Democracy 2009 conference is dedicated to this issue. Through a comprehensive list of thematic areas under the title "Next Generation Society: Technological and Legal issues", the 2009 conference will try to stimulate discussions, create awareness, and provide information on the technological, ethical, legal, and political challenges ahead of us. The list of topics that will be addressed is as follows:


Identity management

Privacy, trust and dependability

Cyber-crime and organized crime

Digital surveillance, tracking, and monitoring

Social networking, blogs

Education and training

Online security

Pervasive, ubiquitous, and intelligent computing

e-Participation and Local e-Goverment

Digital divide

Web-mobile ethics

Cyber-economics

Virtual Communities


Conference Program:


Invited speakers:
Professor Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum
Professor Spiros Simitis

Τετάρτη, 16 Σεπτεμβρίου 2009

Fast Flip: Η νέα υπηρεσία ειδήσεων της Google





Μια νέα υπηρεσία παρουσίασε η εταιρία Google, την υπηρεσία αναζήτησης ειδήσεων από διαδικτυακές εφημερίδες "Fast Flip". Η υπηρεσία διατίθεται προς το παρόν στον ιστοχώρο: http://fastflip.googlelabs.com/

Με τη νέα αυτή υπηρεσία, οι χρήστες θα μπορούν με ένα εύκολο τρόπο να περιηγούνται ιστορίες και θέματα που εμφανίζονται σε διάφορες online εφημερίδες. Η υπηρεσία χρησιμοποιεί ένα interface που ομοιάζει με τις έντυπες έκδοση εφημερίδων, στις οποίες ο αναγνώστης «ξεφυλλίζει» τη σελίδα «κλικάροντας» δεξιά και αριστερά.

Τα θέματα που φιλοξενούνται οργανώνονται με διάφορα κριτήρια όπως η δημοφιλία τους, οι προσωπικές προτιμήσεις των αναγνωστών καθώς και οι συστάσεις από «φίλους». Η εταιρία Google παρουσιάζει την υπηρεσία αυτή ως μια «νέα αναγνωστική εμπειρία».

Τρίτη, 15 Σεπτεμβρίου 2009

Αναθεώρηση της οδηγίας 95/46/ΕΚ για την προστασία των προσωπικών δεδομένων




Το Μάϊο του 2009 η RAND Corporation Europe δημοσίευσε τη μελέτη με τίτλο "Αναθεώρηση της Ευρωπαϊκής Οδηγίας για την Προστασία Προσωπικών Δεδομένων", συντάκτες της οποίες είναι οι Neil Robinson/ Hans Graux/ Marten Botterman/ Lorenzo Valeri.

Η μελέτη αυτή καταλήγει στο συμπέρασμα ότι η οδηγία δεν είναι επαρκής μακροπρόθεσμα, διότι οι αρχές της πρέπει αναγκαία να υποστηρίζονται από σταθμίσεις κινδύνων προκειμένου να ανταποκριθούν με τις αυξανόμενες προκλήσεις της παγκοσμιοποίησης και των υπερεθνικών ροών δεδομένων. Περαιτέρω, υποστηρίζουν ότι η κατάσταση μπορεί να βελτιωθεί με την αρτιότερη εφαρμογή των ισχύοντων κανόνων, για παράδειγμα με την επίτευξη συναίνεσης σχετικά με την ερμηνεία πολλών σημαντικών εννοιών και με τον τονισμό στην ερμηνεία άλλων εννοιών.

Η μελέτη προσδιορίζει ένα σύνολο προκλήσεων στο πλαίσιο των ραγδαίων τεχνολογικών αλλαγών που λαμβάνουν χώρα και της παγκοσμιοποίησης, παρουσιάζει τα θετικά στοιχεία και τις αδυναμίες που αφορούν την οδηγία και τέλος, διατυπώνει ένα σύνολο πρακτικών συμβουλών για την βέλτιστη εφαρμογή της οδηγίας.

Βιβλιοπαρουσίαση: Ε. Σταματούδη (επιμ.), Δημοσιογράφοι και εκδότες ΜΜΕ




Δημοσιογράφοι και εκδότες ΜΜΕ
Ζητήματα πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας
. Επιμέλεια: Ειρήνη Σταματούδη, LL.M, Ph.D, Διευθύντρια του Οργανισμού Πνευματικής Ιδιοκτησίας
Εκδόσεις Σάκκουλα www.sakkoulas.gr
ISBN/ISSN: 978-960-445-453-2
©2009, XXI+322 σελίδες, €36,00

Κυκλοφόρησε από τις εκδόσεις Σάκκουλα το συλλογικό έργο με τίτλο: "Δημοσιογράφοι και εκδότες ΜΜΕ", το οποίο περιέχει τις συμβολές ειδικών επιστημόνων, νομικών, στις οποίες διερευνώνονται φλέγοντα ζητήματα πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας σε σχέση με τα ΜΜΕ.

Οι συγγραφείς που συμμετέχουν στο συλλογικό αυτό έργο προέρχονται από τον ακαδημαϊκό χώρο, αλλά και από το χώρο της μάχιμης δικηγορίας, με εξειδίκευση σε ζητήματα δικαίου πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας. Ως εκ τούτου, το τελικό αποτέλεσμα είναι ένα υψηλού επιπέδου βιβλίο με αναλύσεις σε καίρια ζητήματα που απασχολούν στην πράξη.

Με τις επιμέρους συμβολές καλύπτονται ζητήματα, όπως είναι η προστασία των ηθικών συμφερόντων των δημοσιογράφων, το θεσμικό πλαίσιο των συνεντεύξεων και η παράθεση αποσπασμάτων και σχολιασμός έργων τρίτων, ζητήματα που αφορούν τους φωτογράφους και τη χρήση φωτογραφιών, αλλά και θέματα που αφορούν τα ψηφιακά μέσα, όπως είναι θέματα που αφορούν την εφημερίδα ως βάση δεδομένων, τις άτυπες εκδοτικές συνεργασίες (linking, framing, meta-tagging) και τη συλλογική διαχείριση στην ψηφιακή εποχή.

Αναλυτικά τα περιεχόμενα του βιβλίου έχουν ως εξής:

ΜΕΡΟΣ Α΄
ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΓΡΑΦΟΙ

Λάμπρος Κοτσίρης
1. Ο δημοσιογράφος ως δημιουργός - Εισαγωγικό σημείωμα 3

Ανθούλα Παπαδοπούλου
2. Ο δημοσιογράφος ως πνευματικός δημιουργός και η προστασία των ηθικών του συμφερόντων 11

Πιερρίνα Κοριατοπούλου
3. Θεσμικό πλαίσιο συνεντεύξεων 41

Μαρία-Δάφνη Παπαδοπούλου
4. Παράθεση αποσπασμάτων και σχολιασμός έργων τρίτων 69

Ευαγγελία Βαγενά
5. Πνευματική ιδιοκτησία και δικαίωμα κοινού στην πληροφόρηση (με έμφαση σε θέματα δημοσιογραφίας) 109


ΜΕΡΟΣ Β΄
ΕΚΔΟΤΕΣ
Αρχοντούλα Παπαπαναγιώτου
6. Εξαιρέσεις και περιορισμοί στη χρήση περιεχομένου ΜΜΕ 133

Τατιάνα-Ελένη Συνοδινού
7. Η εφημερίδα ως βάση δεδομένων 161

Μαρία Γ. Σινανίδου
8. Άτυπες εκδοτικές «συνεργασίες»: linking, framing, meta-tagging 181


ΜΕΡΟΣ Γ΄
ΣΥΛΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΗ ΔΙΚΑΙΩΜΑΤΩΝ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΩΝ
ΚΑΙ ΕΚΔΟΤΩΝ - ΖΗΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΠΡΟΣΤΑΣΙΑΣ ΦΩΤΟΓΡΑΦΙΩΝ

Γεώργιος-Ανδρέας Ζάννος
9. Συλλογική διαχείριση δικαιωμάτων συγγραφέων και εκδοτών στην ψηφιακή εποχή 219

Μαρία Κανελλοπούλου-Μπότη
10. Δικαίωμα στην προσωπικότητα και δικαίωμα στη φωτογραφία 233

Ειρήνη Σταματούδη
11. Δικαιώματα φωτογράφων και δημοσίευση φωτογραφιών σε ΜΜΕ 263

Τετάρτη, 9 Σεπτεμβρίου 2009

Παραπλανούν οι μισές ιστοσελίδες ηλεκτρονικού εμπορίου στην Ε.Ε.

Περισσότερες από τις μισές ιστοσελίδες που πωλούν ηλεκτρονικά προϊόντα στην Ε.Ε. περιέχουν παραπλανητικές πληροφορίες ή εξαπατούν τους καταναλωτές, σύμφωνα με επιτροπή ελέγχου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, μετά από ελέγχους 369 ιστοσελίδων σε 28 χώρες.
Πλέον, η κατάσταση περνάει στα εθνικά όργανα των χωρών μελών, για τη συμμόρφωση των επιχειρηματικών πρακτικών, χωρίς να αποκλείεται η απαγόρευση λειτουργίας τέτοιων ιστοσελίδων σε περίπτωση μη συμμόρφωσης.

Περίπου ένα τέταρτο των Ευρωπαίων που πραγματοποιούν αγορές στο Διαδίκτυο χρησιμοποιούν το μέσο για να προμηθευτούν ηλεκτρονικά προϊόντα όπως ψηφιακές κάμερες, κινητά τηλέφωνα ή DVD players, δημιουργώντας μια αγοράς αξίας περίπου 6,8 δισεκατομμυρίων ευρώ.

«Έχουμε πολλή δουλειά ακόμη να κάνουμε τους επόμενους μήνες για να ξεκαθαρίσουμε την κατάσταση σε αυτό τον τομέα», επεσήμανε η Επίτροπος Σχέσεων Καταναλωτή της Ε.Ε., Μεγκλένα Κούνεβα, σε σχετική δήλωση. «Γνωρίζω από προσωπική εμπειρία ότι πρόκειται για πραγματικό πρόβλημα για τους καταναλωτές».

Οι έλεγχοι που πραγματοποιήθηκαν έδειξαν ότι 55% των ιστοσελίδων περιείχαν παραπλανητικές πληροφορίες για τους καταναλωτές σχετικά με τα δικαιώματα τους και τα έξοδα αποστολής, ή έδιναν ελλιπή στοιχεία επικοινωνίας.

Περίπου δύο τρίτα από τα προβληματικά sites δεν ενημέρωναν επαρκώς, ή και καθόλου, τους καταναλωτές, σχετικά με το δικαίωμα τους να ακυρώσουν μία παραγγελία μέσα σε επτά ημέρες από την πραγματοποίηση της ή να επιστρέψουν το προϊόν και να λάβουν επιστροφή χρημάτων.

Επιπλέον, περίπου τα δύο τρίτα των ιστοσελίδων αυτών δεν έδιναν ακριβείς στοιχεία επικοινωνίας, που σημαίνει ότι οι καταναλωτές δεν μπορούσαν να έρθουν σε επαφή με τους ιδιοκτήτες του site σε περίπτωση προβλήματος ή ελαττώματος του προϊόντος.

www.kathimerini.gr με πληροφορίες Reuters