Κυριακή, 31 Ιουλίου 2016

Ηλεκτρονική Επίλυση Καταναλωτικών Διαφορών στην Ελλάδα - Έρευνα για την εφαρμογή του Κανονισμού αριθ. 524/2013


Βάσει του Κανονισμού αριθ. 524/2013 για την ηλεκτρονική επίλυση διαφορών προβλέφθηκε η καθιέρωση ηλεκτρονικής πλατφόρμας για την εξωδικαστική επίλυση τέτοιων διαφορών. Η πλατφόρμα αυτή τέθηκε σε λειτουργία από τις 12.2.2016, στην ηλεκτρονική διεύθυνση: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/odr/main/index.cfm?event=main.home.show&lng=EL

Οι χρήστες του Διαδικτύου μπορούν να απευθύνουν τις καταγγελίες τους που αφορούν αγαθά ή υπηρεσίες που αγόρασαν μέσω του διαδικτύου και να επιλέξουν έναν φορέα επίλυση διαφοράς που αναλάβει τη διεκπεραίωση της καταγγελίας. Για την Ελλάδα ορίσθηκαν ως τέτοιοι φορείς η Ανεξάρτητη Αρχή "Συνήγορος του Καταναλωτή" και ο Μεσολαβητής Τραπεζικών-Επενδυτικών Υπηρεσιών (βλ. εδώ).

Κάθε τέτοιος φορέας εφαρμόζει τους δικούς του κανόνες και διαδικασίες, οι οποίοι είναι συνήθως απλούστεροι, ταχύτεροι και λιγότερο δαπανηροί από ό,τι η προσφυγή στο δικαστήριο. 

Τα 4 κύρια στάδια της διαδικασίας είναι τα εξής:


  1. Υποβολή καταγγελίας.
  2. Συμφωνία σχετικά με έναν φορέα επίλυσης διαφορών.
  3. Διεκπεραίωση της καταγγελίας από τον φορέα επίλυσης διαφορών.
  4. Αποτέλεσμα και περάτωση της καταγγελίας.
(βλ. Τα διάφορα στάδια της διαδικασίας εδώ.)


Ένα από τα βασικά στοιχεία της διαδικασίας αυτής, είναι η ενημέρωση του καταναλωτή για τη δυνατότητα προσφυγής στο μηχανισμό αυτό. Συγκεκριμένα, το άρθρο 14 προβλέπει ότι: "Έμποροι εγκατεστημένοι στην Ένωση που συνάπτουν συμβά­σεις ηλεκτρονικής πώλησης ή παροχής υπηρεσιών και οι ηλεκτρο­νικές αγορές που είναι εγκατεστημένες στην Ένωση παρέχουν, μέσα στους δικτυακούς τόπους τους, τον ηλεκτρονικό σύνδεσμο προς την πλατφόρμα ΗΕΔ, δηλ. τον σύνδεσμο: http://ec.europa.eu/odr. Ο εν λόγω σύνδεσμος είναι ευπρόσιτος στους καταναλωτές. Έμποροι εγκατεστημένοι στην Ένωση που συνάπτουν συμβάσεις ηλεκτρονικής πώλησης ή παροχής υπηρεσιών αναφέρουν επίσης τη διεύθυνση του ηλεκτρονικού τους ταχυδρο­μείου".

Προκειμένου, να διαπιστωθεί η συμμόρφωση των Ελληνικών ηλεκτρονικών καταστημάτων με την υποχρέωσή τους αυτή, κάναμε μια έρευνα σε ορισμένα από τα πιο σημαντικά καταστήματα και το αποτέλεσμα ήταν αρνητικό, δηλ. σε κανένα ηλεκτρονικό κατάστημα δεν υπάρχει ενημέρωση των καταναλωτών για τη δυνατότητα ηλεκτρονικής επίλυσης διαφορών, όπως προβλέπεται στον ως άνω Κανονισμό. 

Η παράλειψη αυτή εφαρμογής του Κανονισμού στην πράξη αποτελεί σοβαρή έλλειψη και θα θεωρούμε ότι θα πρέπει να επιληφθεί σχετικά η Γενική Γραμματεία Καταναλωτή. Σημειωτέον ότι η τελευταία διαθέτει στην αρχική ιστοσελίδα της έναν σύνδεσμο που παραπέμπει στον σύνδεσμο της ΕΕ: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/odr/main/index.cfm?event=main.home.chooseLanguage
Όμως, περαιτέρω πληροφόρηση δεν υφίσταται ούτε και στην ιστοσελίδα της Γενικής Γραμματείας Καταναλωτή, η οποία κατά τα άλλα περιέχει χρήσιμες πληροφορίες για τους καταναλωτές, ιδίως για τη ρύθμιση οφειλών υπερχρεωμένων προσώπων.

Ειδικότερα, η έρευνα κάλυψε τα εξής ηλεκτρονικά καταστήματα:

http://www.plaisio.gr/

www.e-shop.gr

http://www.kotsovolos.gr/

http://www.moustakastoys.gr/

http://www.toys.gr/

http://www.trivago.gr/

https://www.myshoe.gr/

https://www.celestino.gr

http://www.factoryoutlet.gr/gr-el/

http://www.z-mall.gr/

http://www.mediamarkt.gr/

http://www.public.gr/

http://www.zara.com/gr/

http://www.ikea.gr/

https://www.electronet.gr/

http://www.electroholic.gr/gr

http://www.politeianet.gr/

http://www.you.gr/

http://www.e-jumbo.gr/

http://www.praktiker.gr/

http://www.voi-noi.gr/

https://www.germanos.gr/

http://www.plus4u.gr/

http://www.protoporia.gr/

https://www.oroloi.gr/el-gr/

http://www.pharmacy4u.gr/

https://www.ianos.gr

https://www.nak.gr/

https://www.sephora.gr/

http://www.pharmacy295.gr/

https://www.spitishop.gr

http://www.cosmotebooks.gr/gr/

Τρίτη, 12 Ιουλίου 2016

EU-U.S. Privacy Shield


Today the European Commission adopted the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, i.e. an adequacy decision to allow the transfer of personal data from the EU to the U.S.

This new agreement replaces the Safe Harbor Agreement, which was based on the Commission Decision 2000/520/EC of 26 July 2000 pursuant to Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the adequacy of the protection provided by the safe harbour privacy principles and related frequently asked questions issued by the US Department of Commerce (OJ 2000 L 215, p. 7).

The Safe Harber Agreement was declared invalid by the CJEU  in the Case C-362/14 Maximillian Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner. See Press Release 6.10.2015. Therefore, it had to be renogotiated and so was, the EU - US Privacy Shield scheme adopted.

The European Digital Rights organization has qualified this agreement as a privacy sham ! See here


It follows the Press release of the EU Commission:

European Commission - Press release

European Commission launches EU-U.S. Privacy Shield: stronger protection for transatlantic data flows

Brussels, 12 July 2016
Today the European Commission adopted the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield.
This new framework protects the fundamental rights of anyone in the EU whose personal data is transferred to the United States as well as bringing legal clarity for businesses relying on transatlantic data transfers.
Andrus Ansip, Commission Vice-President for the Digital Single Market, said: "We have approved the new EU-U.S. Privacy Shield today. It will protect the personal data of our people and provide clarity for businesses. We have worked hard with all our partners in Europe and in the US to get this deal right and to have it done as soon as possible. Data flows between our two continents are essential to our society and economy – we now have a robust framework ensuring these transfers take place in the best and safest conditions".
Věra Jourová, Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality said: "The EU-U.S. Privacy Shield is a robust new system to protect the personal data of Europeans and ensure legal certainty for businesses. It brings stronger data protection standards that are better enforced, safeguards on government access, and easier redress for individuals in case of complaints. The new framework will restore the trust of consumers when their data is transferred across the Atlantic. We have worked together with the European data protection authorities, the European Parliament, the Member States and our U.S. counterparts to put in place an arrangement with the highest standards to protect Europeans' personal data".
The EU-U.S. Privacy Shield is based on the following principles:
  • Strong obligations on companies handling data: under the new arrangement, the U.S. Department of Commerce will conductregular updates and reviews of participating companies, to ensure that companies follow the rules they submitted themselves to. If companies do not comply in practice they face sanctions and removal from the list. The tightening of conditions for the onward transfers of data to third parties will guarantee the same level of protection in case of a transfer from a Privacy Shield company.
  • Clear safeguards and transparency obligations on U.S. government access: The US has given the EU assurance that the access of public authorities for law enforcement and national security is subject to clear limitations, safeguards and oversight mechanisms. Everyone in the EU will, also for the first time, benefit from redress mechanisms in this area. The U.S. has ruled out indiscriminate mass surveillance on personal data transferred to the US under the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield arrangement. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence further clarified that bulk collection of data could only be used under specific preconditions and needs to be as targeted and focused as possible. It details the safeguards in place for the use of data under such exceptional circumstances. The U.S. Secretary of State has established a redress possibility in the area of national intelligence for Europeans through anOmbudsperson mechanism within the Department of State.
  • Effective protection of individual rights: Any citizen who considers that their data has been misused under the Privacy Shield scheme will benefit from several accessible and affordable dispute resolution mechanisms. Ideally, the complaint will be resolved by the company itself; or free of charge Alternative Dispute resolution (ADR) solutions will be offered. Individuals can also go to theirnational Data Protection Authorities, who will work with the Federal Trade Commission to ensure that complaints by EU citizens are investigated and resolved. If a case is not resolved by any of the other means, as a last resort there will be anarbitration mechanism. Redress possibility in the area of national security for EU citizens' will be handled by an Ombudspersonindependent from the US intelligence services.
  • Annual joint review mechanism: the mechanism will monitor the functioning of the Privacy Shield, including the commitments and assurance as regards access to data for law enforcement and national security purposes. The European Commission and the U.S. Department of Commerce will conduct the review and associate national intelligence experts from the U.S. and European Data Protection Authorities. The Commission will draw on all other sources of information available and will issue a public report to the European Parliament and the Council.
Since presenting the draft Privacy Shield in February, the Commission has drawn on the opinions of the European data protection authorities (Art. 29 working party) and the European Data Protection Supervisor, and the resolution of the European Parliament to include a number of additional clarifications and improvements. The European Commission and the U.S. notably agreed on additional clarifications on bulk collection of data, strengthening the Ombudsperson mechanism, and more explicit obligations on companies as regards limits on retention and onward transfers. 
Next steps: The "adequacy decision" will be notified today to the Member States and thereby enter into force immediately. On the U.S. side, the Privacy Shield framework will be published in the Federal Register, the equivalent to our Official Journal. The U.S. Department of Commerce will start operating the Privacy Shield. Once companies have had an opportunity to review the framework and update their compliance, companies will be able to certify with the Commerce Department starting August 1. In parallel, the Commission will publish a short guide for citizens explaining the available remedies in case an individual considers that his personal data has been used without taking into account the data protection rules.
Background
On 2 February 2016 the European Commission and the U.S. Government reached a political agreement on a new framework for transatlantic exchanges of personal data for commercial purposes: the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield (IP/16/216). The Commission presented the draft decision texts on 29 February 2016. Following the opinion of the article 29 working party (data protection authorities) of 13 April and the European Parliament resolution of 26 May, the Commission finalised the adoption procedure on 12 July 2016.
The EU-U.S. Privacy Shield reflects the requirements set out by the European Court of Justice in its ruling on 6 October 2015, which declared the old Safe Harbour framework invalid.
For more information
(This decision enters into force upon notification to Member States)
Communication: Transatlantic Data Flows: Restoring Trust through Strong Safeguards

Τρίτη, 5 Ιουλίου 2016

Digital Tools for Computer Music Production and Distribution

Dionysios Politis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece), Miltiadis Tsalighopoulos (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece) and Ioannis Iglezakis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)
Release Date: June, 2016|Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 291
ISBN13: 9781522502647|ISBN10: 1522502645|EISBN13: 9781522502654|
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0264-7

Description

It is clear that the digital age has fully embraced music production, distribution, and transcendence for a vivid audience that demands more music both in quantity and versatility. However, the evolving world of digital music production faces a calamity of tremendous proportions: the asymmetrically increasing online piracy that devastates radio stations, media channels, producers, composers, and artists, severely threatening the music industry.
Digital Tools for Computer Music Production and Distribution presents research-based perspectives and solutions for integrating computational methods for music production, distribution, and access around the world, in addition to challenges facing the music industry in an age of digital access, content sharing, and crime. Highlighting the changing scope of the music industry and the role of the digital age in such transformations, this publication is an essential resource for computer programmers, sound engineers, language and speech experts, legal experts specializing in music piracy and rights management, researchers, and graduate-level students across disciplines.

Topics Covered

  • Acoustics
  • Electroacoustic Music
  • Music and Speech
  • Music Theory
  • Piracy
  • Production Interfaces
  • Sound Synthesis